Research and Development

We have achieved another mile stone with the support of Fragrance Foundation Arabia members and specially Paris Gallery. Long awaited market research project is now on track and we have already commissioned The Nielsen company to do the project.

Fragrance Foundation Arabia now invite other key players of the industry to come forward and join this project where we look forward to learn more about the industry we all belong.

Date : 1st May 2012.

Nielsen

Fragnance Knowledge

Different forms of fragrance

For Him
AFTERSHAVE - Next in strength to cologne, it is also made of perfume oils in a hydro-alcoholic solution. Created to be applied to the face, there are two forms of After Shave Lotions — one features cooling astringent qualities to heal small nicks and cuts. The other, a relatively new development in After Shave Lotions, incorporates ingredients which moisturize and smooth the skin. The scent is formulated to perform for a short time.

COLOGNE - Men's cologne is usually the most concentrated and lasting form of fragrance, blending natural essential oils, aroma molecules and fixatives. Like perfume, a fine cologne may contain several hundred different ingredients. Since fragrance rises, it should be splashed or sprayed on the body from the feet up.

PERFUME - Several fragrance lines for men include this most concentrated form of fragrance. Meant to be applied sparingly to the pulse points, it will provide a long-lasting application.


For Her
COLOGNE - The lightest form of fragrance. Perfect for splashing liberally all over the body. It is the perfect refreshant. It does not provide a longer lasting fragrance application.

EAU DE PARFUM - One of the newest forms of fragrances to be found in many of the fine fragrance collections, it assures a long-lasting concentrated application and prepares the skin for the perfume application. It should be smoothed or sprayed just before dressing, all over the body from the feet up.

PERFUME - The strongest, longest-lasting fragrance form. Like lipstick, blusher or eye make-up, it provides the intensity, the emphasis. Apply at all the pulse points . . . wherever one feels the beat of the heart behind the ears, the nape of the neck, at the base of the throat, at the bosom, the inside bend of the elbows, at the inside of the wrists, behind the knees, at the inside of the ankles. (Fragrance rises, and properly applied will heighten the application.) The heat of the body at these points will assure a well-balanced fragrance application.

TOILET WATER - Usually less concentrated than Eau de Parfum, it also provides the foundation for your perfume application and should be applied in exactly the same way as Eau de Parfum.

Do's and Don'ts

Do introduce the enjoyment of fragrance to every young person you know It is never too soon for them to experience the fun and benefits of fragrance.

Do introduce the enjoyment of fragrance to every young person you know Once a bottle of perfume is opened it should be used. Otherwise it will begin to fade or change its character with time. Long exposure to strong sunlight or extremes in temperature can disturb the delicate balance of the perfume and change its scent. Perfume, to last, should be kept in a cool, dry place away from direct light, preferably in its beautiful box. Just as books must be read... records played...fragrances must be worn to be enjoyed!

Do keep your fragrances safe from extreme cold or heat. Your nose will lose its ability to tell the difference. Apply fragrance directly to the skin when you are testing new scents. You cannot get a true reaction to the fragrance from the bottle. Apply a few drops to your wrist. Allow the heat of the body to develop the fragrance on your skin and then sniff. If you would like to test one or two additional scents, apply one to the other wrist... wait...and then apply the third to the inside bend of the elbow. If you want to delay your decision while you shop, be sure to write down which fragrance you put where, so you'll be able to refer back to it later on.

Do make it a rule never to try more than three scents at one time It will increase your feelings of well being...add a special degree of graciousness to daily living...make life for you and those around you infinitely more pleasurable and enjoyable.

Do use fragrance throughout every day It will increase your feelings of well being...add a special degree of graciousness to daily living...make life for you and those around you infinitely more pleasurable and enjoyable.

Don't choose a fragrance because you like it on someone else Fragrance is never the same on different people. Everyone is created equal until they use fragrance. It is your individual body chemistry which makes a fragrance special, unique and flattering for you.

Don't forget fragrances for men They have never been more of a basic part of masculine good grooming. Colognes, shaving foams, after-shaving lotions, skin conditioners, soaps, after-shower body rubs, talcs, all add a refreshing and delightful dimension to the masculine living.

Don't hoard your fragrance Open each bottle with anticipation and pleasure. Enjoy its fragrant contents regularly or you may be disappointed to discover it has spoiled or evaporated before your eyes.

Don't make your final judgements on a new fragrance until at least ten minutes after you have applied it. By that time the alcohol will have evaporated and the blending of the fragrance with your own skin's chemistry will give you a true impression.

Don't put fragrance directly on furs or fabrics It may stain.

Essential Oils and Their Properties Chart

Essential Oils and Their Properties Chart References:
The Aromatherapy Handbook by Danielle Ryman, Century Publishing: 1984
The Art of Aromatherapy by Robert Tisserand, Healing Arts Press: 1977
Aromatherapy an A-Z by Patricia Davis, The C.W. Daniel Company Ltd.: 1988

Fragrance Categories

Men's Fragrance Category Amber Oriental - Sweet ambery accords with balsamic, caramel, or fruity nuances in the topnote.

Aromatic - Thyme, sage, mint, rosemary, anis and clove are some of the herbs and spices that produce an aromatic perfume.

Floral Citrus - Floral accords round out the fresh citrus background of this masculine blend (woods and spices).

Fougere - A powerful fantasy composition of bergamot, oakmoss and geranium.

Fresh Citrus - Classical citrus notes (bergamot, orange, lemon, petitgrain, mandarin, etc.) that linger down to the base of the fragrance.

Lavender - A lavender note is dominated by the fresh, bracing scent of the flower. It is often blended with fougere, woods or floral notes.

Leathery Chypre - Dry, smoky or warm balsamic leather accords counterpoised with a fresh topnote.

Marine Fougere - Ozonic and marine accords act as the element of freshness in this modernized fougere.

Spicy Oriental - Warm exotic spice notes intertwined with oriental base accords.

Tobacco - Flowers, woods and balsam create this warm and sensual blend.

Woody - A warm, dry, elegant and masculine scent. Patchouli, vetyver, sandalwood and cedar form the heart of these fragrances.

Woody Chypre - Base notes dominate, with moss and patchouli aspects lightened with a fresh citrus topnote.



Women's Fragrance Categories Chypre - Based on a woody, mossy and flowery complex, sometimes with aspects of leather or fruits, chypre perfumes are rich and tenacious.

Citrus - The light, fresh character of citrus notes (bergamot, orange, lemon, petitgrain, mandarin, etc.) is often combined with more feminine scents (flowers, fruits and chypre).

Flowery - An accord of different floral notes. Combines with any other family, flowery perfumes are universally commercial.

Flowery Aldehydic - Aldehydes add sparkle to flowery notes. Aldehydic creations radiate elegance and originality.

Green - Green notes are natural in character; often married with fruity and floral notes, they are modern and fashionable.

Oriental - A blend of warmth and mystery. Musks and precious woods are complemented by exotic essences.

Semi-Oriental - Semi-orientals combine oriental notes with various florals. Top notes are often fresh.

Single Floral - A composition based on the scent of one particular flower; the main examples are rose, jasmin, tuberose, lily of the valley or ylang.

Fragrance Categories

Diet and Scent The wearer's diet can affect the way a fragrance smells and lasts on the skin. If the wearer is on a high fat, spicy diet, for example, fragrances will be more intense. A dramatic change in diet can alter skin chemistry, causing fragrances to smell differently.

Long-lasting Effects For a long-lasting effect, fragrance should be layered all over the body, starting with toilet water or eau de parfum, next in strength to perfume, to build the fragrance foundation. Because fragrance rises, spray or smooth fragrance onto skin from the feet to the shoulders. If fragrance is applied only behind the ears, it will eventually rise and disappear.

Scent Circle Everyone has a personal "scent circle": approximately an arm's length from the body. No one should be aware of your fragrance unless he or she steps inside your "circle." Fragrance should be one of the most subtle, personal messages you send to those with whom you come in contact.

Skin Type and Fragrance Skin type will also affect the way a fragrance smells on a person. Fragrance wearers with oilier skin should remember that fragrances interact with the oils in their skin to create a more intense scent. Dry skin does not retain fragrance as long as oily skin, requiring the wearer to re-apply the fragrance more often.

Perfume Quotes

Annie Buzantian "Wearing fragrance is a way to flaunt your style."

Diana Vreeland I think allure is something around you, like a perfume or like a scent. It's like a memory … it pervades.

Elizabeth Taylor The beauty of fragrance is that it speaks to your heart…and hopefully someone else's

François Demachy Perfume helps embellish the skin, but it's not an accessory; it's something entirely different, it's very profound.

Isabella Rossellini Everyone has a personal "scent circle": approximately an arm's length from the body. No one should be aware of your fragrance unless he or she steps inside your "circle." Fragrance should be one of the most subtle, personal messages you send to those with whom you come in contact.

Nina Ricci Perfume is a delicate balance between irrational, hedonistic and technical elements.

Pablo Picasso For a scent to be a real perfume it must come out of your pores, it must have this dimension. All the classics share this common element.

Serge Lutens To create a perfume you have to be the servant of the unconscious. Each idea evolves and transforms, but there should be a surprise with each note

Sonia Rykiel Everyone has a personal "scent circle": approximately an arm's length from the body. No one should be aware of your fragrance unless he or she steps inside your "circle." Fragrance should be one of the most subtle, personal messages you send to those with whom you come in contact.

Yves Saint Laurent For me, perfume, must be adapted to fashion, not the other way around.

The Nose

How Perfumers are Chosen Perfumers are chosen in various ways, each company having a different procedure. Of course, the major criterion is a good nose and this is determined by a series of odor evaluation tests. Prospective perfumers are given a series of identified chemicals, numbering from 20-30 and is asked to study them for a short time. They are then given the same chemicals coded and asked to identify them. There are differences of opinion regarding how many a potential perfumer must identify, but 75-80%, would be considered appropriate.

The candidates remain apprentices for a minimum of 6 years and may never make the grade at all but, if they do, they become full-fledged perfumers and then can move up the ranks, depending on the success of their creations.

Perfumers, creators of fragrance, who are known as "Noses," are held in the highest esteem in the perfume industry and theirs is the final say as to whether or not a fragrance is acceptable. The primary requisite for becoming a Nose is a keen olfactory sense. It is not enough for the perfumer to be able to distinguish blindfolded between the fragrance of a rose and a tulip, but his sense of smell must be so acute that he can detect in a mixture of 100 or more ingredients the precise amount of the various substances that have contributed to the formula. He must not only be able to recognize various raw materials but must have the capacity and artistry to blend them harmoniously. He must be able to tell, for instance, whether a certain lot of labdanum is from Greece or Corsica; whether the oil of ylang-ylang comes from Madagascar or Manila; tell the difference between oils of the same species of plant cultivated in different countries, and which type will achieve a particular result. Lavender oil, for example, can have a top note that is floral, balsamic, sharp, sweet, green or nut-like. The Nose has his counterpart in the wine industry where the skilled expert can tell in an instant the region, type of grape, and vintage of the wine he is sampling.

A truly great perfume is not created in a hurry. Mass-produced fragrances may be blended from a standard formula in a short time, but the original creation of a beautiful perfume may take years to accomplish. If the artist has a picture in mind that he wishes to translate into scent he will spend many weeks and months over it. Surrounded by myriad of bottles, vials, jars, each filled with precious essential oils and other materials, he goes to work. During the blending he is constantly testing his formula. As he works, he dips long slender blotters, called mouilettes (pronounced moo-yetts), into the solution and puts them aside to dry. At intervals these strips are sniffed, to determine what should be added to perfect the composition and to round out the fragrance.

Just as a painter spreads paint over his canvas and then steps back to view it critically checking upon whether more light is needed in an area, or a bit more blue needs to be added to the purple, so does the perfume artist make his tests. Perhaps a minute quantity of jasmine to give smoothness, or slightly heavier note to add more character to an otherwise too light scent.

During the building of the perfume it is tested frequently, and under varying conditions. Is it the same in the early morning as it is in the dusk of the evening? Is the scent altered by weather conditions? These and many other checks are made before the perfume is considered a finished product.

F.Y.I. The perfume apprentice learns to compose fragrances at an "organ", small laboratory that contains the majority of aromachemicals and natural oils used in the day-to-day work of a creative perfumer.

F.Y.I. Perfumers use sophisticated instrumental methods to analyzethe components of perfumery materials in fragrances. A Gas Chromatographer(G.C.) breaks down a fragrance into its individual components which allows the perfumer to identify individual ingredients. Occasionally there are materials in a fragrance which are especially difficult to identify. When this occurs the G.C. is linked to a Mass Spectrometer(M.S.) which helps the perfumer further identify even the most minute quantity of perfumery material.

F.Y.I. The perfumer's palette must be kept in scrupulous order, for even the most minute quantity of the highly concentrated raw material can ruin a formula if a trace of it should be present through carelessness

Wedding Tips

Complete List of Wedding Tips When choosing a fragrance for your wedding day, wear one of your favorites that he especially likes -- this is no time for surprises!

But, if you're determined to wear something new, be sure to start experimenting at least a month before the wedding so that you are certain it is a scent you'll both enjoy.

Apply the same fragrance in all its many forms and layer it -- starting with the bath and ending with your perfume application to the pulse points (wherever you feel the beat of your heart).

For an especially romantic effect, apply fragrance to the palms of your hands. From the moment he slips the ring on your finger...till the last dance...you'll communicate an exquisite sensory message he'll adore.

If you're wearing fashionable sheer lacy gloves take a cue from Queen Elizabeth I and accent them with fragrance.

Just before you put on your veil, spray fragrance and surround yourself in a halo of scent. Then, spray the same fragrance on your veil to create a magical aura of scented pleasure.

Orchestrate your bridesmaids' scents to complement each other -- and you -- for perfect harmony. Their scent should be in the same fragrance family as yours -- oriental, spicy, floral, floral blend, green, modern blend, citrus.

 

Gloassry

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Absolute - Highly concentrated perfume ingredient obtained by the alcohol extraction of the concrete. The concrete is obtained by the solvent extract of the plant material.

Accord - The basic character or theme of a fragrance. Perfume accords are a balanced blend of three or four notes which lose their individual identity to create a completely new, unified odor impression.

Alcohol - Denatured ethyl alcohol is added to a fragrance compound to serve as the carrier. It modifies the fragrance intensity, makes application to the skin easier. Concentration of alcohol to perfume oils vary from perfumer to perfumer.

Aldehyde - An organic compound that ends with an aldehyde (C=O) group. Aldehydes are an essential class of perfume ingredients that impart a vivid top note to the perfume. Aldehydes were first successfully incorporated into a perfume by Ernest Beaux in 1921 in Chanel No. 5.

Ambergris - Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose recursors were secreted and expelled by the Sperm Whale. Ambergris is commonly referred to as "amber" in perfumery and should not be confused with yellow amber, which is used in jewelry.

Animalic - Characterized by bodily aromas or aromas most associated with traditional animal materials such as musk, civet and castoreum. These materials are now banned and have been replaced with musks obtained from plants and civet and castoreum smelling molecules obtained synthetically.

Anosmia - The medical term describing the loss of the sense of smell. It may be caused by a cold, head-injury, nasal disorders, allergies, a virus or perhaps other maladies. People who have lost their sense of smell also lose the ability to detect many pleasurable aspects of food. Tests reveal that a loss in sexuality may accompany anosmia. If one's sense of smell has always been dormant, it would be impossible to realize how important the sense of smell is to one's enjoyment. But, if anosmia occurs later, the absence of the sense of smell can have a most detrimental effect on how we function in all of life's situations.

Apocrines - A type of sweat gland which contributes to the sexual and body scent in humans and which influences the odor characteristics of one's fragrance.

Apocrines - A type of sweat gland which contributes to the sexual and body scent in humans and which influences the odor characteristics of one's fragrance.

Aroma - A term used to describe a sensation which is between smell and taste, such as the aroma of coffee. Aroma Chemicals -

Molecules obtained from natural products or made by synthetic organic chemistry that have an aroma. Most of the synthetic aroma chemicals are nature identical, i.e., identical to the same molecule obtained from a natural product.

Aroma-Chology - A science, developed by the Sense of Smell Institute, dedicated to the study of the interrelationship between psychology and the latest in fragrance technology to elicit a variety of specific feelings and emotions... relaxation, exhilaration, sensuality, happiness and well-being.

Aromatherapy - In brief, aromatherapy is the use of volatile plant oils, including essential oils, for psychological and physical wellbeing. The therapeutic use of pure essential oils and herbs in body massage, the result of which is described by proponents as "healing, beautifying and soothing" the body and mind, has its roots in the folk medicine practiced in primitive cultures. The history of aromatherapy stretches as far back as 6,000 years ago in ancient Egypt. It wasn't until the 1920's, however, when the term was actually coined by a French chemist, R.M. Gattefosse.

Attar (Otto) - From the ancient Persian word "to smell sweet." Attar or otto refers to essential oil obtained by distillation and, in particular, that of the Bulgarian rose, an extremely precious perfumery material.

Axon - The part of a nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the body of the cell.
Balsams - Sticky, resinous materials obtained from trees or shrubs which give a combined sweet-woody odor associated with wellseasoned, non-coniferous woods such as maple.

Bitter - Describes a perfume odor that has a metallic green quality, without sweetness

Blend - Harmonious mixture of perfumery ingredients..

Body - The main fragrance theme -- the middle or "heart" of a perfume. Also used to describe a fragrance that is well rounded or full.

Bony Turbinates - The thin, scroll-like, bony plates extending from the walls of the nasal chambers.

Chypre - A fragrance family or type - a complex of moss mixed with woods, flowers or fruit odors.

Cilia - Short, hair-like cytoplasmic processes projecting from the free surface of certain cells. They are constantly in a state of motion.

Citrus - Odors from citrus fruits such as orange, lemon, lime, mandarin and bergamot which give fresh, fruity top notes used especially in eau fraiche, classical and men's colognes.

Classic - A classic fragrance can be considered in the same vein as classic literature or architecture. A fragrance that has been widely accepted by generation after generation and has enjoyed popularity for a minimum of 15 years.

Cloying - An odor that is excessively sticky sweet.

Coffee - A gustative that stimulates the sense of taste and smell and was introduced in the men's fragrance AngelMEN (1996). Coffee contains over 800 aromatic compounds. No two roasted beans have the same odor profile and scientists have yet to discover all of the aromatic molecules in roasted coffee.

Cologne (Classical) - A term reserved for those fragrances which are basically citrus blends and do not have a perfume parent. Modern colognes, however, are often a lighter extension of the perfume.

Cologne (Men's) - Unlike women's colognes, it is similar to the concentration of toilet water, eau de parfum, and in some instances perfume.

Cologne (Women's) - The lightest form of fragrance with a low concentration of perfume oils mixed with diluted alcohol.

Compound - A compound is a completed perfume formulation ready to be used in a product such as perfume, toilet water, etc. The term "composition" and compound are interchangeable.

Concrete - Solid waxy substance obtained by the solvent extraction of plant material, e.g., flowers, bark, leaves, etc. The absolute is obtained by alcohol extraction of the concrete. With the exception of vanilla, natural materials are extracted first with water insoluble solvent to remove the odorous part of the natural material from the water part which makes up most of the plant material.

Coniferous - Cone-bearing trees and shrubs.

Cortex - The outer layer of gray matter of the brain.
Chypre - A fragrance family or type - a complex of moss mixed with woods, flowers or fruit odors.

Cilia - Short, hair-like cytoplasmic processes projecting from the free surface of certain cells. They are constantly in a state of motion.

Citrus - Odors from citrus fruits such as orange, lemon, lime, mandarin and bergamot which give fresh, fruity top notes used especially in eau fraiche, classical and men's colognes.

Classic - A classic fragrance can be considered in the same vein as classic literature or architecture. A fragrance that has been widely accepted by generation after generation and has enjoyed popularity for a minimum of 15 years.

Cloying - An odor that is excessively sticky sweet.

Coffee - A gustative that stimulates the sense of taste and smell and was introduced in the men's fragrance AngelMEN (1996). Coffee contains over 800 aromatic compounds. No two roasted beans have the same odor profile and scientists have yet to discover all of the aromatic molecules in roasted coffee.

Cologne (Classical) - A term reserved for those fragrances which are basically citrus blends and do not have a perfume parent. Modern colognes, however, are often a lighter extension of the perfume.

Cologne (Men's) - Unlike women's colognes, it is similar to the concentration of toilet water, eau de parfum, and in some instances perfume.

Cologne (Women's) - The lightest form of fragrance with a low concentration of perfume oils mixed with diluted alcohol.

Compound - A compound is a completed perfume formulation ready to be used in a product such as perfume, toilet water, etc. The term "composition" and compound are interchangeable.

Concrete - Solid waxy substance obtained by the solvent extraction of plant material, e.g., flowers, bark, leaves, etc. The absolute is obtained by alcohol extraction of the concrete. With the exception of vanilla, natural materials are extracted first with water insoluble solvent to remove the odorous part of the natural material from the water part which makes up most of the plant material.

Coniferous - Cone-bearing trees and shrubs.

Cortex - The outer layer of gray matter of the brain.
Depth - Refers to a fragrance odor of low volatility with a dimension that is rich and full-bodied.

Diffusion - The ability of a fragrance to quickly radiate around the wearer and subtly permeate the environment.

Distillation - A common technique for obtaining aromatic compounds from plants, such as orange blossoms and roses. The raw material is heated and the fragrant compounds are re-collected through condensation of the distilled vapour.

Dry - A sensation produced by certain perfume ingredients which give a woody, masculine effect.

Dry Down - The final phase of a fragrance the character which appears several hours after application. Perfumers evaluate the base notes and the tenacity of the fragrance during this stage.

Dysosmia - A distortion or perversion of the sense of smell. It may occur with hyposmia (a relative loss of the sense of smell) or it may occur alone.

Dysosmia - A distortion or perversion of the sense of smell. It may occur with hyposmia (a relative loss of the sense of smell) or it may occur alone.
Earthy - The provocative odor of freshly turned earth, musty and rooty.

Enfleurage - In this process, aroma materials are absorbed into wax and then the odorous oil is extracted with ethyl alcohol. Extraction by enfleurage was commonly used when distillation was not possible because some fragrant compounds denature through high heat. This technique is not commonly used in the present day industry due to its prohibitive cost and the existence of more efficient and effective extraction methods.

Environmental Fragrancing - The use of a pleasant scent to enhance the comfort, enjoyment and overall perception of indoor spaces.

Essences - Products which endeavor to capture or emphasize the highly volatile top notes of natural products.

Essential - Volatile oil obtained by various processes from flowers, leaves, roots, barks, stems, fruits, seeds and woods.

Essential Oil - The essence of plants obtained by distillation of the plant material or its concrete. Plant materials include flowers, grass, stems, seeds, leaves, roots, bark, fruits, tree moss and tree secretions.

Evanescent - Fleeting or quickly vanishing fragrance.

Evaporation - The process of changing from a liquid to a vapor.

Expression - Raw material is squeezed or compressed and the oils are collected. Of all raw materials, only the fragrant oils from the peels of fruits in the citrus family are extracted in this manner since the oil is present in large enough quantities as to make this extraction method economically feasible.

Extracts - Concentrated perfume or flower products obtained through the process of extraction using volatile solvents.
Factice - Regular or oversize perfume or cologne bottles filled with a tinted liquid for display purposes only.

Fatigue - Odor fatigue results from overlong exposure to an odor, or from smelling too many fragrances at one time. The nose can no longer discern any particular smell.

Fixative - The property of a fragrance which prolongs the continuity and life of the odor. A fixative acts by improving, fortifying or transporting the vapors of other perfume materials.

Flacon - A word to describe beautifully designed perfume bottles sometimes especially designed for portability.

Flat - Lacking in lift, diffusion and distinction.

Floral - Fragrance family or type; either characteristic of a specific flower or a blend of several flower notes.

Flowery - Possessing a fragrance resembling a flower. Term often used to describe certain aromatic chemicals such as heliotropin, hedione, rhodinol and anistic aldehyde.

Forest Blends - Aromatic, woodsy - mossy notes.

Fougere - The French word for "fern." Fougere fragrances depend on aromatic chemicals to produce the fern-like notes that combine well with lavender, citrus and coumarin in fragrances for men.

Fresh - An invigorating, outdoor or nature-inspired type fragrance with green, citrus notes.

Fruity - The impression of full, ripe, edible fruit odors (excluding citrus) within the fragrance theme.

Full-Bodied - Well-rounded fragrance possessing depth and richness.

Fungal - Odors suggestive of molds, mushrooms and fungi; important notes in muguet fragrances as well as other florals.
Gourmand - A food-like quality in a fragrance. Edible.

Green - Fragrance family or type whose odor is reminiscent of fresh-cut grass, leaves or a warm, moist forest. Green notes add lift and vigor to a fragrance composition.

Gums, Resins, Balsams - The resinous exudates of the bark, twigs or leaves of trees or shrubs.
Harmonious - Order, accord and unity in fragrance.

Harsh - A crude, unbalanced, rough pungent odor.

Hay - A sweet clover odor.

Heady - Exhilarating, sparkling, stimulating.

Heart - The core of a perfume composition which gives it its character.

Heavy - An odor which can be forceful, intense, often sweet and balsamic.

Herbaceous - A fragrance note that is grassy-green, spicy and somewhat therapeutic, e.g., thyme, hyssop, chamomile.

Heterosmia - All vapors smell alike.

Honey - A very sweet, heavy, syrupy, fragrance note; is tenacious.

Hyposmia - The most common type of smell loss experienced by humans, it may occur following an influenza-like illness, a blow to the head, nasal allergies or from unknown causes. Hyposmia has been classified into two major types: Type I Hyposmia represents an impairment of smell at the olfactory epithelia area. Vapors cannot be recognized but can still be detected; Type II Hyposmia represents a quantitative impairment of smell. Vapors can be detected and recognized but at higher than normal concentrations.

Hypothalamus - The portion of the brain that coordinates responses of the autonomic nervous system, e.g. body temperature control; food and fluid intake; hormonal shifts at puberty, and during and after pregnancy; sexual behavior.
Incense - The burning of fragrant gums or resins in a solid or powder form. It gives off a lingering, scented smoke and is the original form in which fragrance was used.

Infusion or Tincture - A solution obtained by prolonged contact with alcohol. When hot alcohols are used it is called infusion. When alcohols are at room temperature or warm the method is called a tincture.

Ionones - One of the most valued synthetic perfume ingredients. They have a fresh, violet aroma and were first introduced into perfumery in 1936 in Violettes de Toulouse.
Jacobson's Organ - See Vomeronasal Organ
Kallmann's Syndrome - Disorder that can include several characteristics such as absence of the sense of smell and decreased functional activity of the gonads (organs that produce sex cells), affecting growth and sexual development.
Lastingness - The ability of a fragrance to retain its character over a given period of time. Leafy: One of the many variations of the green note.

Leather - Fragrance type and odor resembling the sweet, pungent smokiness characteristic of the ingredients used in the tanning process of leathers.

Lift - To add life to a fragrance blend is to give it lift and some brilliancy; lift can also refer to diffusiveness of a given blend. A perfume having lift has a brilliant top note with wide diffusiveness.

Light - A generally non-sweet, non-cloying fragrance where the fresh note is predominant. Often formulated as an eau fraiche or deodorant cologne for all-over body wear in warm climates or for sports.

Limbic System - The portion of the brain that controls our moods and emotions and contains the apparatus for the formation, storage and retrieval of memories.
Mellow - A fragrance that gives a balanced, smooth and rich impression.

Micro-Encapsulation - A method of incorporating thin-walled, microscopic capsules containing fragrance oils into a solid substance (fragrance advertising inserts, capsules, blotters, paper, etc.)

Middle Notes - The middle or "heart" notes make up a main blend of a fragrance that classifies the fragrance family or accord. It usually takes from ten to twenty minutes for the middle notes to fully develop on the skin.

Modern - In perfumery the modern era began at the beginning of the 20th century when synthetic aroma chemicals such as aldehydes, were first used. A modern fragrance is a harmonious conception of the perfumer based on new notes or harmonies often unknown in nature.

Mossy - The odor suggestive of the aromatic lichens, and mosses, primarily oak moss and tree moss; reminiscent of forest depths.

Musk - Originally derived from the musk sacs from the Asian musk deer, it has now been replaced by the use of synthetic musks which usually are called white musk.
Neroli Oil - Neroli essential oil is extracted from the fragrant blossoms of the bitter orange tree (Citrus aurantium sub.sp amara), and has a beautiful aroma that appeals to men and women alike. In common with rose and jasmine, neroli oil is almost a complete fragrance in itself and forms the heart of one of the worlds most enduring perfumes, Eau de Cologne.

Note - Borrowed from the language of music to indicate an olfactory impression of a single smell, or to indicate the three parts of a perfume - top note, middle note, base note.
Oakmoss - A resinous substance exuded from lichen, usually found around oak trees. Odor or Odour: Airborne chemicals emanating from water, objects, one's body, flowers or fragrance that stimulate the olfactory system. The characteristic smell of something.

Odor Memory - The ability of a perfumer to hold, and bring to recall, hundreds of single perfume odors and odor blends.

Odor Memory - The ability of a perfumer to hold, and bring to recall, hundreds of single perfume odors and odor blends.

Odor or Odour - Airborne chemicals emanating from water, objects, one's body, flowers or fragrance that stimulate the olfactory system. The characteristic smell of something.

Odorant - Substance that stimulates the sense of smell.

Odoriferous - Emitting an odor.

Olfaction - Relating to the sense of smell.

Olfactometer - 1) An instrument for measuring the sense of smell by issuing known concentrations of odorous materials. 2) An instrument using human olfactory senses to measure the odor intensity of a known concentration of an odorous substance.

Olfactory (adj.) - Relating to, or concerned with, the sense of smell.

Olfactory Bulb - The first region of the brain to receive sensory inputs from the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory bulb presents the initial input and communicates via multiple pathways with numerous other regions of the brain, e.g. limbic system, hypothalamus and cortex.

Olfactory Detection Threshold - The lowest concentration that a specific volatile substance that can be detected as different from an odorless background.

Olfactory Epithelium - Layer of sensory cells in the upper-rear portion of the nose. Each side of the nose contains roughly 15 million sensory cells in the epithelium.

Olfactory Recognition Threshold - The lowest concentration of a vapor at which a specific odor characteristic can be recognized. For example, the recognition threshold for vanilla is the lowest concentration of its vapor that can be recognized as being vanilla.

Organ (Perfume) - Refers to a unit of semi-circular stepped shelving containing hundreds of bottles of raw materials. Arrangement is in a way to assist the perfumer in the creation of perfume compositions.

Oriental - Fragrance family or type devoting heavy, full bodied and tenacious perfumes. Amber notes are dominant in this category.
Perfume - Most highly concentrated form of fragrance, the strongest and the most lasting. Perfume may contain hundreds of ingredients within a single formulation.

Perfume Dip Sticks - Strips of odorless white blotting paper, which the perfumer uses to evaluate a scent as it develops.

Perfumer's Palette - The range of perfume ingredients from which a perfumer selects to use in the formulation of a perfume. There are 3400 raw materials available to perfumers 400 naturals and 3000 synthetics.

Pheromone - Chemical substance secreted by animals (including perhaps humans) to produce a response by other members of the same species. Sexual attractants are the most widely studied and described.

Pomades - Combination of purified fats and flower oils produced by the enfleurage and maceration processes. Pommades are found in the form of an oily and sticky solid.

Powdery - Sweet, dry, somewhat musky odor.

Profile - A perfume or perfumed product profile is a description of the fragrance prepared by a marketer, which is given to a perfumer for inspiration and formulation. The profile contains all pertinent details in relation to marketing the new fragrance plan, type, name, package, color/theme, mood, impression, cost parameters, etc.
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Receptor Cell - Located in the olfactory epithelium, each cell has microscopic hairs (cilia) extending into the mucus. Odoriferous substances are thought to bind chemically to specific sites on these cilia. This chemical event is translated into an electrical message that is transmitted along the olfactory nerves to the olfactory bulb.

Resinoids - Are extracts of gums, balsams, resins or roots (orris), which consist in whole or in part of resinous materials. They are generally used as fixatives in perfume compositions.

Retronasal Olfaction - Stimulation of the olfactory receptor cells by chemicals that originate in our mouth (most often during eating) and travel to the olfactory epithelium via the nasopharynx during exhalation.

Rhizomes - Root-like stems with nodes, which grow under or along the ground. Certain perfume raw materials come from rhizomes, e.g., Orris absolute and ginger oil.

Rounding Out - Perfume ingredients, often from natural origins, added to fragrance compositions to enrich, modify or soften any harsh qualities.
Signature - The ethereal mark of a fragrance that makes a distinct impression on those who encounter it. Some perfumers' works contain a singular signature, which is as individual as a fingerprint.

Solvents - Volatile fluids used to extract water insoluble, odorous substances from plant material. The solvent extract of a plant material is called a concrete.

Specialties - Natural oils, natural isolates or synthetics, either alone or in combination, which are used as building blocks for fragrance compounds. They are less complex than a finished fragrance compound. They may be an end-product of special processing treatments or unique raw materials. A single company under a trade name usually supplies them.

Spicy - Piquant or pungent notes such as clove oil, cinnamon; characteristic of notes of carnation, ginger, lavender or the chemical spicy notes of eugenol or isoeugenol.

Stability - A reasonable length of time for a fragrance to remain stable before the product is affected by certain raw materials, heat, light and air.

Strength - The relative intensity of a fragrance impression.

Sweet - Can be used to describe a fragrance that has richness and ambrosial characteristics associated with sweet taste.

Synergism - The ability of certain perfumery ingredients to work together to produce an effect greater than the ingredients could achieve independently.

Synthetics - May be derived or isolated from natural products or manufactured in the laboratory. Some synthetics are superior to the natural in uniformity, stability and availability. Synthetics may be as costly as naturals.
Temporal Lobe - Lateral portions of the brain containing, among other regions, olfactory cortex and portions of the limbic system.

Tenacity - The ability of a perfume to last, or a fragrance note to retain its characteristic odor.

Thin - When a fragrance complex has not been given enough "floralcy" or warmth to soften the impact of the more aggressive and volatile components; lacking in body and depth.

Tincture - Fragrant materials produced by directly soaking and infusing raw materials in ethanol. Tinctures are typically thin liquids.

Tonality - Dominant note or theme of a fragrance.

Top Note - The first impression of a fragrance when sniffed or applied to the skin; usually the most volatile ingredients in a perfume.
Undertones - The subtle characteristics of the fragrance background.
Velvety - A soft, smooth, mellow fragrance without harsh chemical notes.

Volatile - The property of being freely diffused in the atmosphere; easily vaporized at a low temperature.
Woody - An odor which is linked to the aroma of freshly cut, dry wood or fibrous root such as sandalwood or vetiver.
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Frequently Asked Questions

Is it true that the sense of smell is keener in the morning than it is later in the day?
No, our sense of smell is not as sharp in the morning as it is later in the day. More upbeat, "bright" scents can be appreciated at the beginning of the day to sharpen the senses. Once you've awakened your sense of smell, choose fragrances that correspond with your mood, fashion or the occasion.
As we get older, can our sense of smell begin to diminish as is does for our eye sight and hearing?
Constant, creative use of all our senses can help to keep them at peak performance well into old age. It may be the time in a person's life to change fragrance type, i.e., one that gives a fast and stronger odor impression.
Can a person's medication, smoking affect how a fragrance smells?
Yes. The wearer may think a fragrance formula has been changed when instead it is a change in diet, medication or lifestyle which has caused the new perception of scent. What one eats on a regular basis can affect the way a fragrance smells and lasts on a person's skin. If one is on a high fat, spicy diet, for example, fragrance will be more intense. If you have recently changed your diet dramatically, skin chemistry may change, causing fragrance to smell differently on you.
Can one improve one's sense of smell after 50?
Many men and women over 50 begin to lose their ability to fully appreciate smell sensations. Though current research reveals that women are less apt to lose their sense of smell as quickly as men at the same age, older people often prefer stronger scents. They must be careful not to overdo their fragrance applications, particularly in warm weather or if they know they are going to be in stressful situations.
Can one lose one's sense of smell?
Yes, particularly if one has a cold, the flu or if you have suffered a head injury. If the condition persists, see a physician.
Can perfume be kept indefinitely?
Once a bottle of perfume is opened it is meant to be used. Otherwise it will begin to fade with time. Long exposure to strong sunlight or extremes in temperature can disturb the delicate balance of the perfume and change its scent. Perfume, to last, should be kept in a cool, dry place away from direct light.
Do women have a keener sense of smell than men?
Yes, but much of it learned. On a day-to-day basis women in our society are encouraged to use their noses more often than men through their interest in cooking, flower arrangements, creating interior environments, and the early use of fragrance products. In addition, according to scientific research, the fluctuation in a woman's sense of smell, during a 24-hour period, is systematically greater than a man's.
Does dry skin require a more generous fragrance application?
Yes, dry skin does not hold fragrances as long as oily skin and it should be reapplied more often throughout the day.
If a person is inclined to perspire, does this affect the impact of fragrance?
Yes, body heat builds up, fragrance intensifies.
If fragrance is applied in the morning, will it last throughout the day?
No, fragrance is not formulated to last all day. It should be refreshed periodically. Approximately every three to four hours.
Is it important to apply fragrance all over the body?
Yes, fragrance rises. If a woman applies her fragrance just behind her ears, or a man his aftershave just on his face, the scent will slowly rise and disappear.
Is it true that a person has his or her own individual "smell fingerprint"?
Yes. Each of us has our own unique odor identity which is the sum total of our heredity (genes), skin type (dry/oily/light/dark), hair color, diet, whether or not we take medications, are under stress, the environment in which we live, etc.
Is it true that fragrance can be kept in the refrigerator for a refresher pickup?
Yes, but only colognes and toilet waters. Perfumes should not be exposed to extreme cold or heat because either may upset its delicate balance.
Is it true that fragrance reacts differently on blondes, brunettes and redheads?
Yes. Blondes -- with a fair skin will be happiest with long-lasting multi-floral creations. Their skin is often dry causing fragrances that are too subtle to evaporate rapidly.

Brunettes -- usually have medium-to-dark skin which contains natural oils, allowing scents to last longer. Dramatic orientals are often favorites.

Redheads -- have extremely fair and delicate skin which may be incompatible with fragrances which have predominant green notes.
Is it true the sense of smell is not as keen in the winter as it is in the summer?
Yes, heat increases the impact of odor. In the summer there are so many fascinating "smell" signals around us, and we are more conscious of our sense of smell and certainly enjoy it to the fullest. In hot weather, each fragrance application goes a long way-so lighter fragrances should be worn.
May fragrance be sprayed on the hair?
Only if the hair is freshly-shampoed. Oils and dirt which accumulate on the hair and scalp intensify fragrance and can distort it. Also, don't spray fragrance on extremely dry or brittle hair
Should fragrance be applied to clothes?
No, fragrance is formulated only to be applied to the skin. If applied to fabric, the fibers could change the character of the fragrance. The scent might also stain the fabric.
Should fragrance be applied to the palms of your hands?
Yes, it is a wonderful way to enjoy the fragrance for oneself.
When traveling to a "high altitude" will fragrance be affected?
Yes, high altitude decreases the long-lasting effects of fragrance so it should be applied more often. High altitudes also weaken the strength of a fragrance message. Choose stronger fragrances.
Why is it important to test no more than three fragrances at one time?
The sense of smell quickly develops odor fatigue if it is exposed to too many sensations in a short period of time.